In Polish things change according to whether you’re talking about a man, woman, or object. As genders affect pretty much every grammatical element, it’s probably the first thing to look at.
The shortest possible (slightly useful) sentence is probably a sentence comprised of just a verb: if they ask you, “what are you doing?” you can reply “I’m reading”. If you’re hungry, you can say “to eat” and point to a restaurant, etc. etc.
In addition, verbs in Polish are somewhat easy, as there aren’t a lot of tenses.
Cases Grammatical cases of the Polish language Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Instrumental Locative Vocative
Word classes Word classes in the Polish language Nouns Grammatical genders (masculine, feminine, neuter) Vocabulary: Basic Polish nouns
Verbs Conjugation of verbs Vocabulary: Basic Polish verbs
Adjectives Pronouns Personal pronouns (I, you, he, she, it, etc.) Reflexive pronouns (myself, themselves, etc.) Possessive pronouns (my, your, our, etc.) Interrogative pronouns (who, what, whose, etc.) Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, etc.) Indefinite pronouns (somebody, nobody, nothing, etc.)
Numerals Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Particles Interjections
I originally got the elements of this list from: http://mowicpopolsku.com/polish-grammar/.